Judiciary of Tumbra

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The judiciary of Tumbra consists of judges who sit on the federal courts as well as courts of the states of Tumbra. The Federal Constitutional Court sits at the apex of the Tumbran court hierarchy as the ultimate court of appeal on matters of both Federal or state law. Under the Constitution of Tumbra, judicial power is vested in the federal court system and the state courts, and other courts that may be established through legislation. Currently, these courts include the Federal Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Family Court, Circuit Courts and District Courts. Federal jurisdiction may also be vested in state courts. The supreme courts of the states are superior courts of record with general and unlimited jurisdiction within their own state or territory. They can try any justiciable dispute.

Federal Constitutional Court[edit]

The Federal Constitutional Court building, Straton

The Federal Constitutional Court of Tumbra is the apex court of the judicial hierarchy. It is the final court of appeal in the country, has original and appellate jurisdiction over all other courts; the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Federal Parliament of Tumbra and the State Parliaments, and has the ability to interpret the Constitution of Tumbra, and in so doing, shaping the relationship between the states and the federal government in Tumbra.

The Federal Constitutional Court is established in Article XXXV of the Constitution, and Article XXXVI sets out the number of justices on the Court, the position of the Chief Justice, how many justices there are, and how long they may serve. Constitutionally, the age to retire is set at 75; there are a total of nine justices on the Court, and the Chief Justice is Judith Colton, who was sworn in on April 22, 2013. All Justices must be confirmed by the Senate before they are sworn in by the President.

While the Court is the final court of appeal in Tumbra, it chooses which cases it wishes to hear; it typically hears about 80-100 cases a year related to the matters which it has original jurisdiction on. Otherwise, it only hears cases that it does not have original jurisdiction over if it influences the Constitution or has become a matter of significant public interest, involves a conflict between courts, or is in the interests of the administration of justice. The matters on which the Court has original jurisdiction on are included in clause 198 of the Constitution.

The Court has been housed in the Federal Constitutional Court building since 1928; before that, it shared its premises with the Supreme Court buildings.

Supreme Court of Tumbra[edit]

Family Court of Tumbra[edit]

Federal Circuit Courts of Tumbra[edit]

Federal District Courts of Tumbra[edit]