Tumbra

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The Federal Republic of Tumbra

A red-black-gold tricolour with the Tumbran eagle and the twenty-five stars surrounding it.
Flag
Coat of arms of Tumbra
Coat of arms
Motto: Liberty and Justice for All
Anthem: Song of the Tumbrans
Map of Tumbra with first-level administrative divisions highlighted
Map of Tumbra with first-level administrative divisions highlighted
CapitalStraton
Largest cityCouno
Official languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
(2020)
  • 85% White
  • 7% Asian
  • 4% Black
  • 2% Mixed
  • 2% Others
Religion
(2020)
  • 57% Christianity
  • 33% No Religion
  • 4.7% Judaism
  • 2.5% Islam
  • 1.4% Hinduism
  • 0.8% Sikhism
  • 1.1% Other/No Answer
Demonym(s)Tumbran
GovernmentFederal parliamentary democratic republic
• President
Kelia Campbell
Kenneth Everett
LegislatureFederal Parliament of Tumbra
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence from the Empire of Tumbra
• Empire of Tumbra formed
1601
• Beginning of the Tumbran Civil War
1864
• Treaty of Staplewood
1875
Area
• Total
547,795 km2 (211,505 sq mi)
• Water (%)
1.2
Population
• 2020 estimate
114,603,589
• Density
209/km2 (541.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$5.9 trillion
• Per capita
$51,623
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$5.13 trillion
• Per capita
$44,808
Gini23
low
HDI (2020)Steady 0.933
very high
CurrencyTumbran Dollar (TMD)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideleft
Calling code+90
TrigramTMB
Internet TLD.tmb

Tumbra, officially the Federal Republic of Tumbra, is a federal democratic republic located in Esportiva. It is situated with Damukuni to its west, the Hinodejin Empire to its north and oceans to its south and east. It covers an area of about 547,795km2, with a population of over 114 million people in its 25 constituent states. Its capital is Straton, while its largest city and financial centre is in Couno; the largest urban area is the Northeast Conurbation, comprising the previous two cities along with the cities of Harren, Serrapince (which is also the second largest city in Tumbra), Timbourne and Killiney.

Tumbra is a major power with a strong economy; it is a global leader in science and technology, along with culture and media. Couno is in particular home to the Tumbran Broadcasting Corporation and the Couno Herald, two of the multiverse's biggest news providers in the broadcast and print media industries respectively. A major tourist destination, the Tumbran scenery also offers an alluring tourist destination.

Politically, Tumbra is a federal parliamentary republic; under the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Tumbra, the President is the head of state, but their power is mostly nominal. The Prime Minister of Tumbra is the most powerful office in the country and the Federal Parliament the primary legislative body.

As a highly developed country with a strong economy, it is one of the world's major exporters and importers of goods. it offers social security and a comprehensive universal health care system programme, rich environmental protections, and free university education. Most of its cities are also home to comprehensively funded public transport systems, most of which are free at the point of use. Tumbra is a prospective member of the Esportivan Union, and is also a member of the World Cup Committee. It is, however, not a member of the World Assembly.

Etymology[edit]

While the exact etymology of Tumbra is unknown to many, the currently accepted theory amongst scholars of Tumbran linguistics is that the word "Tumbra" comes is a portmanteau of the words "Tu", "Embe" and "Ra" in Old Tumbran, which means "Land", "Bountiful" and "Harvest" in the old language. Hence, "Tumbra" in old Tumbran meant "Land of Bountiful Harvests". The name became the name of many kingdoms in pre-1601 Tumbra, but only became the name referring to the whole country after the Empire united. The Federal Republic, not seeing any reason to change the name when it became the government of the land, decided to keep the name.

History[edit]

The first record of human activity in Tumbra dates back to about 500,000 years ago; and the oldest evidence of civilisation was found in Gamaliel, where several tribes utilising a distinctive knot (which now serves as the state symbol, and is present on their flag) symbol have been found by historians. The first proper civilisation to occupy Tumbra, however, is often considered to be the Leyan Empire.

Leyan Empire and early history[edit]

The Leyan Empire was founded in late 100AD, and reached its peak in about 350 to 390, with the maximum territorial extent reaching as far east as the Marcato-Napier border, and as far west as the modern-day Iswilyn-Gamaliel border. Most of its development, however, was focused on the city of Eternus, located in modern-day Finnley. Most of what modern-day historians know as the Leyan Empire and Eternus comes from Alexandrocus' Annals, which chronicles the decline and fall of Leyan civilisation from 390 to 477. Eternus was sacked in 436 by a slave revolt, and the military had essentially taken over the monarchy afterwards, sinking the nascent polity into a bureaucratic morass of ever-expanding borders while neglecting the inner workings of government. Following the Sack, Eternus was stripped of its status as capital, and all government functions moved west, towards Gamaliel.

Soon after, a triumvirate of Eternus' most famous philosophers and politicians - Andretto, Calantus and Brennus - decided to rid the Leyan Empire of the military control, and to reform it as a Republic led by its most intellectually capable citizens. The resulting Leyan Civil War, however, and personal disagreements between the trio on how the new state would be governed, led to the three setting up their own kingdom, each claiming to be the successor of the Leyan Empire - which had long since collapsed in on itself and was now in a state of anarchy.

The Middle Ages[edit]

The next hundred or so years after 477 saw Tumbran peoples expand to fill in the entire sub-continent, going so far as to occupy the modern Tumbran borders by 871. In the east, the three kingdoms fought against each other for what seemed like eternity over control of the Napier River basin; ironically, as their founders sought to establish a republic, their successors eventually began imposing more monarchical traditions, until each of the Three Kingdoms really did become full-fledged kingdoms. As prosperous as they were, constant war led their states to eventually end in ruin; and all three fell to the Severn Invasion of the 750s.

This meant the East Coast of Tumbra was united for the first time in Tumbran history by the Princedom of Severn, who proclaimed himself King in 753; however, his grip on the Northern provinces would last not long after his death, and the Severn Principality reverted to its original borders by 900. This bout of warring states has been nicknamed the "Age of Chaos" by modern historians, owing to the ever-shifting political borders and loyalties of towns, kingdoms and such; it was near-impossible for any single man to claim hegemony over a certain area.

In the west, things were slightly calmer on the frontier, by Tumbran standards; small townships held a great deal of power, and royal tradition was hard to be seen, the resource-rich west instead focusing on agricultural progress. It was not until the 1030s that the west began to unify into several duchies and kingdoms; even then, despite the common heritage and history that they shared with the rest of Tumbra, they remained insular and closed off from the rest of Tumbra. It was this period of isolationism that has had the greatest impact on western Tumbran culture; to this day, west Tumbra remains slightly culturally distinct from the rest of the country.

Middle age polities of Tumbra. Clockwise, from top: The Northern Kingdom, the Southern League, the Western Kingdom and the Central Tumbran Confederation

In the 1330s, three political entities formed in eastern Tumbra; the Northern Kingdom, the Central Tumbran Confederation and the Southern League. For all intents and purposes, however, the Southern League was merely the Principality of Severn's expansion efforts along the South Coast to monopolise trade along the trade-friendly southern coast; in particular, their competition from the city-state of Bencoolen was a direct reason why Charles X of Severn decided to embark on his campaign. Not long after, he sent a colonisation expedition to find new lands to expand Severn to; the resulting colony would become the nation of Montego.

In the north, Joseph I of Straton successfully managed to expand his power all the way to the borders of Western Tumbra; in 1339 he crowned himself King of Northern Tumbra. This is the first instance of 'Tumbra' entering the name of a Kingdom. He was followed soon after by the Central Tumbran Confederation, a union of small duchies and territories governing themselves collectively in order to safeguard themselves from what they thought were aggressive neighbours from the north and south. The Confederation was poor, largely agricultural, but that part of Tumbra was also home to the shrewdest dukes and royals in the whole of Tumbra. For the entirety of their existence, the Central Tumbran Confederation would constantly be fighting skirmishes with the other three, more powerful, kingdoms.

The Unification Wars[edit]

By 1563 the four-kingdom status quo had essentially become the way of the land, until Edward IX, prince of the state of Carrinthia, began to consolidate power within the Confederation. The Confederation, which operated on a rotating-leadership structure (meaning the title of Head of the Confederation rotated between the various princes whose principalities constituted the Confederation, plus the other semi-independent fiefdoms and minor rulers whom the Princes were not objected to each year - elected amongst themselves), in his opinion, had grown weak, and subject to the whims of the rotating leadership. Despite it being a principle that the Confederation would stick to the rotation-model, in order to prevent the Confederation from becoming another kingdom and being ruled via tyranny, Edward IX began to subtly assemble power.

Edward IX of Carinthia, who would later become Edward I Terenberg of the Empire of Tumbra

When Edward IX became Head of the Confederation in 1575, he began assembling a massive army. When his term was supposed to end in 1576, Edward IX simply refused to step down from the position. The electors were slated to vote in Philip IV of Thornton, but Edward's massive army proved to be too much pressure for the electors - whose sovereignty was under threat if they voted in anyone else but Edward IX - and subsequently re-elected Edward IX for a second year in charge.

Immediately after being re-elected, Edward IX dissolved the Confederation and pronounced a new Empire of Tumbra, with him in charge and the capital in what would be known as Washington. He immediately declared war on the Southern League, and by winning decisive battles at Bencoolen in April, Stepford Ridge in June and Southport in September, soon secured access to the sea, which opened up a vital revenue stream for the Confederation. While the Confederation had no access to naval powers, he paid Kotzellachian naval forces for the usage of their navy - and won a vital battle at sea near Alexandria which crippled the League's navy. With little resistance on land, Edward IX would march into Lakewood - the capital of the Southern League - by 1580, and added it to the growing size of the Tumbran Empire.

The Western campaign was next; because of its insular nature, the technology differences between the two were too great, and the nascent Empire would dispatch the disparate Western alliance, and add them to its polity; the hardest battles it occurred were in the north, where the Grantfeldtians refused to engage the Empire forces directly, but rather sabotaged key parts that would slow the progress of the Empire down and wear them down by attrition. This, coupled with the harsh winters of Grantfeldt, resulted in the first defeat for Empire forces in the battle for Colbrook in spring 1584; however, reinforcements from the south would complete the Western campaign by 1586; but the resulting pacification of the lands in the north, which would prove to be particularly troublesome for the Empire to subjugate.

The Northern Kingdom would prove the hardest to defeat; owing to its technological progress and high level of militarisation, the Kingdom would be the Empire's toughest challenge up to that point. Multiple battles would prove inconclusive, and the two-year long siege of Straton - a feat that earned the Duke of Straton multiple honours from the King of the North - would take a heavy toll on the Empire's forces. However, three successive battle wins - at Readale, Timbourne and Serrapince - would destroy the army, and Frederick IV, the last King of the North, would surrender to Edward IX in 1600.

The coronation of Edward IX would occur in Straton Cathedral in January 1601, marking the end of twenty-two years of constant warfare. He took the name Edward I, essentially restarting the entire chronology of Tumbran regnal numbers, installed the House of Terenberg as the ruling royal house, and would reign for the next eight years, dying in 1608 at the age of 62. He would be succeeded by his son Charles, marking the first dynastic succession of a wholly-united Tumbran continent.

The Empire of Tumbra[edit]

The following three decades of Charles' rule would see the House of Terenberg consolidate their power over Tumbra; rebellious elements were put down, nobles were purged and replaced with loyalists, and the map of Tumbra was re-drawn to see the number of administrative divisions decrease from over two hundred to just twenty-three, each headed by a Prince. Charles made his own son, Michael, Prince of Napier; and from then on the heir apparent of the Tumbran throne would also be made Prince of Napier.

The pacification of the country continued, but all things considered, the country was more stable than before; over the next few decades, under the rule of Michael I and Michael II, the Empire would begin to marshal up its huge resources, and become a global powerhouse. The Empire began to stretch its ambitions beyond the immediate borders of Esportiva, and sought to gain a foothold in Northeastern Atlantean Oceania by setting up a trading post in Kotzellach, which was called New Thurmond.

William II Terenberg, under whose stewardship the Empire is widely regarded to have reached its zenith in power

Under Queen Anne and the four Williams (I, II, III and IV), the Empire flourished, but in 1793 a major blow was dealt when Tumbra attempted to sidestep the Kotzellachian merchants and turn New Thurmond into its own trading powerhouse, to possibly dictate the flow of goods in Northeastern Atlantean Oceania. Kotzellach responded by blockading New Thurmond, which cut off a major source of revenue for the Empire; the resultant trade war was a humiliating loss for the Tumbran Empire, and they were forced to begin paying Kotzellachian merchants for access to Atlantean Oceania; which greatly reduced the revenue available from that region. The loss of New Thurmond, an entrepot for the Empire, is widely considered to be the beginning of the end for the Empire. In response, to keep the massive Empire and its bloated military afloat, the Empire increased taxes on the citizenry, which began to stoke anti-monarchical tensions. William IV's successor, Michael III, began cracking down slightly on the intelligentsia of the country, and began making discussion on the status of the Empire illegal. Edward II would also continue this trend, and attempt to make relations with the Rushmori country of Xinhua, by engaging in gunboat diplomacy - forcing the country open and to trade with Tumbra.

While disorganised, such tensions did not reach fever pitch until 1855, when the slightly reformist Emperor Joseph, who promised to set up a Parliament of the peoples of Tumbra, was assassinated by a rogue anarchist after he apparently reneged on his promise to do so - in reality, Joseph was hamstrung by his nobles, who were unwilling to give up the power that had become theirs over the past two hundred years. Had Joseph's plans for a Parliament gone ahead, there has been much speculation that Tumbra today would be a constitutional monarchy instead of a republic.

William V Terenberg, the final monarch of Tumbra.

Joseph was succeeded by his brother, William V, who began his rule by immediately cracking down on free speech and the community of intellectuals in Tumbra; several who had written pieces calling for reforms were immediately arrested. This long period of repression began harming the cultural output of Tumbra; in 1860 James Edwards, a notable philosopher and writer, released his Manifesto for a New Tumbra, a vision of Tumbra which saw a Republic led by citizens and not by royals. Immediately following its publication it was banned, and Edwards was placed under arrest; however, illicit copies of the manifesto spread like wildfire amongst the populace, and Edwards' vision caught on.

One of those who read the book was Gordon Hamilton, a young military officer in the Imperial Army; he was taken by the vision of Edwards, and formed a secret cabal, known as the White League, along with several other officers in the military; together, they would work together to overthrow the Empire and establish a new Republic.

The Tumbran Civil War[edit]

The White League would plan in secret for a wholesale takeover of the Empire; it was ready to fight against the Empire in what it saw was a long, protracted fight. In 1862, in response to a bad harvest and famine, the West of the country declared independence; the Western Republic was weak, and lasted but a few years, before it was forced to retreat into low-level warfare reminiscent of the Grantfeldt Campaign to keep its independence.

Gordon Hamilton, the first President of the Federal Republic of Tumbra

The campaign in the west severely weakened Imperial forces, and when Hamilton declared the formation of the Federal Republic of Tumbra on 5 January 1864, the Empire was caught entirely off guard. Seven provinces - Napier, Bechor, Clearmont, Thornton, Alexandria, Bencoolen and Straton - seceded, and marked the beginning of the Tumbran Civil War, which would be fought for the next eleven years. Early military victories on land for Hamilton's army would soon be met with ever stronger numbers of loyalists from Central Tumbra, where the government drew most of its recruits from; the disastrous Battle of Ridgewell Bay would result in the utter decimation of the Republican Navy forces.

The Federal Republic promulgated its Constitution soon after, and held elections just three months after the formation of the new country. The elections saw Hamilton - a reluctant figure - be elected President of the Federal Republic, although he was still a serving general and would typically have been ineligible to serve as President. For him, however, the House and the Senate of the newly-formed Federal Parliament voted unanimously to waive the requirements for Hamilton.

Hamilton would form an alliance with the socialists, led by Benjamin Washington, in a bid to get as many allies as possible - Washington wished to establish a socialist state in southwestern Tumbra, and compromised with Hamilton in order to join the Alliance; Hamilton would push for as many social programs for the poor as possible to pass through Parliament, whereas Washington would join up with the Federal Republic. Washington would turn out to be a greatly successful military leader; after the war, he was one of the founders of the Labour Party, though he died before the party won the 1882 elections.

In 1870, Hamilton was re-elected as President despite being extremely reluctant to continue in the position; throughout his first term, he had refused to exercise any of the political powers he had been given, and delegated them to the Prime Minister, Walter Robinson. Robinson exercised these powers, setting the stage for the modern Prime Ministership of the country.

In 1871, the Western Republic voted to join the Federal Republic of Tumbra. This, adding seven states to the Federal Republic, is largely seen as the reason why the Federal Republic won the war; soon after the decision of the Western Republic to merge with Tumbra, international recognition and support flooded in from overseas; from then on, the tide of battle swung irreversibly in the Federal Republic's favour.

After the state of Carrinthia - the birthplace of the Empire - fell in 1874, Empire surrendered to the Federal Republic. The resultant Treaty of Staplewood - which abolished the monarchy, amongst other provisions - was signed on 14 May 1875, and the House of Terenberg left Tumbra for Montego, where the Duke there had granted them safe harbour.

With the Civil War over, and an economy in ruins, the next government would have a lot to do to rebuild the country. Hamilton left office in 1876, with his Farewell Address calling for constitutional reform to transform the country into a parliamentary system of governance, both on the federal level and the state level; and died less than a year later, in early 1877. The state of Carrinthia was re-named Hamilton, for the deceased President.

The modern Federal Republic[edit]

Michael Turner, the second President of the Federal Republic

Michael Turner, Hamilton's second Vice President, would succeed Hamilton as President, and continued the process of amending the Constitution. In the end, the raft of amendments he and Hamilton had proposed passed in 1877, limiting the President to a single term and lifting the nonpartisanship requirement, along with greatly reducing the powers of the office. From then on, power would be executed by the Prime Minister and their office. Controversy still existed over how the states would be governed; the 1881 Compromise enacted a uniform sense of unicameral governance amongst the states, which remains in force today.

The first left-wing government in Tumbra would be elected in 1882, when Labour won that year's elections; Prime Minister Leonard Everett immediately embarked on a project of large-scale industrialisation, focused on several cities in the country. The process saw many people leave the rural towns and head to the cities to find work, and these port cities - in particular, Columbia, Kingsbury and Collatia - would grow substantially, not just from immigration but from the raft of people moving towards the cities as well.

The process of rapid industrialisation led to the economy of Tumbra rapidly growing throughout the early 20th century; however, several misadventures in foreign policy - such as the ill-fated Xinhua Campaign of 1908, which saw the country attempt to destabilise the monarchy enough to strengthen its hand in the country, only to be hounded out completely by the rebels, who toppled the monarchy entirely and drove the Tumbrans out (whom they deemed to be exploting the Xinhuanese economy) led to blights on the country's reputation on the international stage. Women would gain the vote in 1920, and radio would become far-reaching throughout the vast swathes of Tumbra, connecting the country. The first east-west railway would be completed in 1921, and the economy would continue growing until the Stock Market Crash of 1927.

Brought about by financial mismanagement, the stock market crash led to a radical rethinking of the government's role in the economy to redistribute instead of facilitate economic growth. When James Carlton assumed the office of Prime Minister in 1928, he oversaw a massive retooling of government resources, engaging in huge infrastructural projects to kick-start the economy. Such projects built in this time included the Port of Couno, the Port of Bencoolen, much of Fontwell and Millsburgh (which were also designated as Industrial Centres), and multiple power plants meant to deliver electricity to the whole of Tumbra. A rudimentary social security programme was also put in place in 1931. These programmes were popular enough that the Liberal administration of 1936-1942, under David Hayes, would not only continue but expand on these programmes, a remarkable sense of unity espoused by both major political parties at the time.

The Alistair Everett government - grand-nephew of Leonard - would continue these plans, and begin to pivot towards manufacturing as Tumbra's primary industry, exporting products to the world. Heavier banking regulations were also imposed on banks throughout the country, in order to prevent a repeat of the 1927 crash. Near the end of his tenure, however, the economy began to enter a minor recession, and Everett lost power to Christopher Bradshaw, a firm prpponent of free market economics. Bradshaw would begin the process of building the Federal Expressway System, to link all major cities of Tumbra by road; this process has been dubbed the "largest infrastructure program in Tumbra ever enacted".

Malcolm Haywood, the 23rd and longest-serving Prime Minister of Tumbra

By 1963, however, Malcolm Haywood would win a narrow victory over the Liberals, and transform Tumbra once again into a social market economy, putting in place extremely generous welfare programmes to strengthen the social fabric of Tumbra. Amongst his other achievements included the foundation of the federal Tumbran Health Service, the strengthening of the National Endowment and National Insurance, and renewed focus on the railway programme. Several industries - including steel and coal - would be nationalised under Haywood. Haywood would serve until 1979, when the election of 1979 produced a deadlocked Parliament, and the Moderate Party refused to serve in any Haywood-led government.

The 1980s would see a period of deregulation, especially in the burgeoning telecommunications and shipping industries, where the government had held monopolies since the 1960s. By this time, stagflation had overcome the sustained period of growth Tumbra had, and the new Liberal government, headed by Andrew Rainer, would utilise monetarist policies in order to deflate the inflation rate, and the decade would see immense growth in personal wealth for the middle classes, particularly in the East. In the West, however, where Rainer tried to close down several mines, he was met with protests and strikes by mineworkers. It was during this period that several crises flared up, with regards to the AIDS epidemic and LGBT rights.

The 1990s saw Couno become a technologically-advanced city, with several technology companies set up base in Tumbra. The governments of Edward North, Peter Roscoe and Ian Randall all embraced the free market and de-regulation, overseeing the gradual transition from a manufacturing economy to a services-based economy, before the 2009 recession, which saw a new government led by Darren Hayes, embark on a program of austerity - reduction of public spending - to try and curb the recession. In 2017, Kenneth Everett of the Labour Party won on a programme of fiscal expansion, promising to revitalise the economy once more by spending on infrastructure and exporting Tumbran products to the world.

Geography[edit]

Climate ranges of Tumbra

Tumbra is in Central Esportiva, bordering Damukuni to the west and the Hinodejin Empire to the north. To its east lies the Tumbran Sea, and further east lies the Apoxian Dependent Territory along with South Newlandia. Tumbran territory covers 547,795 km2, about 1.2% of which is water.

Eleveation ranges from the tallest peak in Tumbra is Mount Vernon, at 2,877m; the Turvenal Mountain Range in the west to the shores of the Tumbran Sea in the east and the ocean to the south. The lowlands of eastern Tumbra are traversed by major rivers such as the Bechor, Marcato and Dart rivers. The natural resources of Tumbra include coal, iron ore, timber, rice and wheat; with a significant vein of silver in the west of Tumbra.

Climate[edit]

Tumbra has a temperate climate, ranging from an oceanic (Cfb) climate in the east to a continental (Dfb) climate in the west. Winters range from cold in the south to milder in the north, and the country, with the exception of Westmond and Grantfeldt, does not see much snowfall. Summers generally see extreme weather, with the season recording the highest temperatures and the highest amounts of precipitation.

Politics[edit]

Federal[edit]

Michael D. Higgins 2006.jpg Gavin Newsom by Gage Skidmore.jpg
James D. Clark
President of Tumbra
Kenneth Everett
Prime Minister of Tumbra

Tumbra is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic somewhat based on the Westminster system. The Constitution of Tumbra, promulgated in 1864, is the supreme law of Tumbra, establishing the structure and responsibility of the government, as well as the other organs of it. Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority in both houses, though failing that, if the amendment manages to get a simple majority in both Houses, the Government may advise the President to call a binding referendum on the matter. As of 2021, this power has not been used.

Federal legislative power is vested in the Federal Parliament of Tumbra, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, forming the lower and upper houses respectively. The House of Representatives is elected in direct elections using the instant-runoff voting system in 650 constituencies, and may be dissolved by the President on advice of the Prime Minister if the term of the House has reached four years, the House has voted to dissolve itself, or if the House cannot settle on a Prime Ministerial candidate after three ballots in the ensuing Prime Ministerial election.

The Senate is elected, meanwhile, every six years, through proportional representation by direct election. 200 Senators are elected on the same day as the first round of the Presidential election; each state sends between six and twelve Senators to the Senate, and each Senator represents the state at-large. The Senate functions much like the House, with the exception that they cannot raise bills regarding supply, appropriations or taxation. They, however, have the sole power to vet and approve political appointees, including gubernatorial candidates nominated by the President (widely seen as one of the few places in which the President has a free hand, and who also serve as representatives of the President in the state or free city that they are nominated to)

The President, currently James D. Clark, is head of state. They are elected by popular vote in a two-round election every six years. The first round is held concurrently with the Senate election, and a second round, held if no candidate garners a majority of the vote in the first round, is held two weeks later. They serve a single, non-renewable six-year term starting on 3 March of the year they were elected in. Most of their powers as outlined in the Constitution are primarily representative and reserve powers, which is the significant change from the original role of the President, in which they were originally envisioned to be taking on more power in a semi-presidential system.

The Vice President, currently Thomas Carmichael, is elected on the same ticket as the President. They are the second highest official in the order of precedence, and are first in the order of succession. Mostly, however, they serve as the presiding officer of the Senate, as President of the Senate.

The head of government, currently Kenneth Everett, is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet. Since 1882 the party system has been dominated by the Labour and Liberal parties, who jointly have provided all but three of the Prime Ministers of Tumbra since 1864, and who currently hold the largest numbers of seats in the Federal Parliament. However, the smaller centrist Moderate Party, the environmentalist Green Party, the socially conservative Conservative Party and the socialist Social Democratic Party also are represented in Parliament; the six account for almost 98% of all votes cast in any given federal election, and independents on the federal level are rare, mostly relegated to local government authorities.

Administrative Divisions[edit]

Tumbran government hierachy

Tumbra is sub-divided into 25 states, three of which are delineated as City-states. Each state has its own state Constitution, which largely mirror the structure of the federal Constitution, but are bound together in terms of their structure of their parliaments and the way the local government authorities are organised. As of 2021 the 22 non-city states are subdivided into 85 regions, for a total of 88 regions. The 85 regions are then further subdivided into 147 local government authorities, which are separated into rural or urban districts on the municipal level. The three city states are considered as states, regions and local government authorities all in one, giving rise to a unique situation where the three are the only local government authorities elected through single-member seats, because they are state assemblies. The other 147 local government authorities are all elected through proportional representation.

For the purposes of administering services on a larger scale, Tumbra is also separated into 5 different regions - North, East, Central, South and West Tumbra. Each comprises 5 states each. However, they serve no other purpose apart from that.

Macro-regions of Tumbra
Administrative Subdivisions
Special Sub-division First-level administrative division Second-level administrative division Local administrative units (LAU)
Macro-Regions 5 States 25 Sub-Regions 88 Local Government Authorities 150 (147)
List of States[edit]
List of States of Tumbra
State name Abbreviation Capital Largest City Date ascended Population Representatives Senators
Napier.png Napier NP
Couno
5 January 1864 12,319,149 70 12
Bechor.png Bechor BE
Serrapince
5 January 1864 10,688,486 61 12
Clearmont.png Clearmont CM
Hesham
5 January 1864 8,218,827 47 10
GeorgiaState.png Georgia GA
Macarthur
Kingsbury
4 September 1871 7,669,273 44 10
Marlsbruhe.png Marlsbruhe MB
Fontwell
1 January 1873 6,557,918 37 9
HamiltonState.png Hamilton HA
Washington
14 May 1875 6,380,058 36 9
Grantfeldt.png Grantfeldt GR
Millsburgh
1 January 1873 6,011,832 34 9
Iswilyn.png Iswilyn IL
Denhelm
13 March 1872 5,325,173 30 9
Severn.png Severn SE
Lakewood
Knapford
1 November 1865 4,952,581 28 8
StateThornton.png Thornton TH
Collatia
5 January 1864 4,570,461 26 8
Fremont.png Fremont FR
Hoxford
1 January 1873 4,560,299 26 8
Dartmoor.png Dartmoor DA
Kelder
Tavistock
15 March 1870 4,452,692 25 8
Westmond.png Westmond WM
Ridgewell
31 June 1866 3,575,575 20 7
StateofMarcato.png Marcato MA
Dieren
4 March 1871 3,350,238 19 7
Finnley.png Finnley FN
Algoma
Nantwich
29 September 1866 3,205,179 18 7
Turvenal.png Turvenal TV
Heatherton
1 January 1873 3,147,785 18 7
GamalielState.png Gamaliel GM
Brades
Readale
30 January 1867 2,825,719 16 7
Straton.png Straton ST
Straton
5 January 1864 2,819,528 16 7
Raleigh.png Raleigh RA
Carter City
15 March 1869 2,650,632 15 7
Alexandria.png Alexandria AX
Newton
5 January 1864 2,646,585 15 7
Caduke.png Caduke CA
Caldwell
1 January 1873 2,306,401 13 7
Lormark.png Lormark LM
Renfrew
Southport
1 January 1873 2,145,479 12 7
Pesvern.png Pesvern PS
Shepperton
1 January 1873 1,754,227 10 6
Harren.png Harren HR
Harren
5 January 1864 1,406,083 8 6
Bencoolen.png Bencoolen BC
Bencoolen
5 January 1864 1,063,409 6 6
State Government[edit]

The 25 states' governments all mirror the structure of the Federal Government's, with one key exception - all 25 state Parliaments are unicameral instead of bicameral. This compromise was arrived at late in 1881, settling a dispute that had been ongoing since the inception of the Federal Republic in 1864; while certain states had already transitioned to a parliamentary system, most states still utilised a directly-elected Governor who wielded executive powers. The dispute, then, came down mostly to the separation of powers between the federal government and the level of taxation each state could levy.

The Compromise of 1881, negotiated by Prime Minister Walter Robinson, standardised the system of government such that it would mirror the style used by the Federal Government. In return, more legislative power would be devolved to the states to determine their own policy, especially with regards to tax. The Compromise lasted until 1911, when Prime Minister Nathaniel Webb broke by introducing a new tariff system to supersede all state taxes on imports and exports; the Federal Constitutional Court declared the tariff constitutional, and since then a lot of powers with regards to finance have returned to the federal government, but the structure of the state governments remain.

Each legislative branch of the 25 states has between 40 (Bencoolen) to 180 (Napier) seats, with each state representative on average representing about 38,000 constituents. This is a vast difference from the federal level, where a single federal MP represents on average 133,000 people. The head of government of each state is called the Premier, and is the typically the head of the largest party in the state Parliament; similarly to the Federal style of governance, they are elected by the State Parliament following a general election in each state. The current longest serving Premier is David Ross of Bechor; he was elected to the post of Premier in 2010.

The head of state in each State is called the Governor, and are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate for a six-year term; most Governors are retired diplomats or persons of such high renown in the State. Each Governor is also in line to succeed the President, should the line of succession reach that long; seniority is based on when the state ascended to the Federal Republic.

Local Government Authorities[edit]

For the 22 states, the state is separated into anywhere from two to seven regions, giving a total of 85 regions. Those, until 2000, were the sub-divisons used to administer local government. After the passage of the Local Government Reform Act 1999, regions were again subdivided into 147 Local Government Authorities, with two types - Metropolitan Districts and Rural Districts. Functionally, the two have the exact same function, with the only difference being the chief executive of said district. Metropolitan Districts have a mayor, while Rural Districts have a council leader.

Both metropolitan district councils and rural district councils are elected through open-list proportional representation, with one representative for every 10,000 voters. The usage of open-list proportional representation allows for a independent politicians to be elected by garnering enough votes to be elected, so long as the number of votes for said independent candidate crosses the threshold.

All councils are elected at the same time as state governments - whenever the state government is dissolved, the councils are dissolved as well, unless the state election happens within eighteen months of the last one. In that case, the councils are not dissolved and are granted a term extension until the end of the new state parliament's term. No such extension is allowed for a newly-elected state government should it dissolve within the next eighteen months, however, making the theoretical maximum length of a council's term five-and-a-half years, instead of the four years found in other forms of government. Should casual vacancies occur during the term of the Council, the next member on the party list will take the place of the departed member; should the departed member be an independent, or the party list run out of candidates, the seat will be left vacant until the next election. For this reason, most independents running for a place on local government authorities run in lists of two or three candidates. The threshold to be elected is also the same as the number of total votes divided by the number of seats; therefore, about 10,000 votes are needed to be elected as an independent. As of 2020, there are 8197 councilors in Tumbra.

Metropolitan Districts have a directly-elected mayor, and operate more like a presidential system. Mayors are elected every four years alongside the district council. Mayors may be subject to recall votes, if more than 12% of the registered voters submit signatures for a petition, to the council within 160 days of the petition being filed, then the post of mayor is considered recalled, and a supplementary election for the post to fill the rest of the mayor's term will be held within 90 days. As of the time of writing, no directly elected mayor has ever been recalled. There are no term limits on the post of mayor, but most step down after two terms.

Rural Districts select a council leader from within its body, operating much like a parliamentary system, and are subject to the same procedures used to elect the Prime Minister and Premiers of State Governments, as enumerated in the Constitution. Both lead a small executive, named a Cabinet, to assist them in the day-to-day running of the region. Despite the difference in the method of election, however, both mayors and council leaders have about the same amount of powers, with the Mayor being given a bit more flexibility to appoint their Cabinet, being able to appoint people outside the Council to their Cabinet. However, mayoral cabinet appointees are subject to approval by the Council, while Council Leaders, while restricted to appointing Council members to their Cabinet, are not subject to the same approval vote.

Most councillors serve part-time, and are renumerated considerably less than state officials, who are constitutionally bound to be full-time legislators.

Law[edit]

The Tumbran judicial system is based on common law. The highest federal court is the Federal Constitutional Court, which is responsible for constitutional matters, with the power of judicial review. It also serves as the final court of appeal, and exercises both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction, and serves as the trial court for any impeached official. Nine judges serve on the Federal Constitutional Court, and one amongst them is the Chief Justice - this role is currently filled by Judith Colton.

Beneath it, the Supreme Court of Tumbra hears all cases regarding criminal, civil, finance, administrative and labour matters. The Federal Family Court, which hears cases on family law, was established in 1977. Criminal law is codified in the Tumbran Penal Code, while civil law is codified in the Civil Code. All judges must retire at the age of 75.

Law enforcement is chiefly the purview of the states, but in recent years police code has become more and more standardised across the 25 states. A Federal Police Force also exists, and is subordinate to the Ministry of Law and Justice, and chiefly investigates cases of international organized crime, terrorism and other cases related to national security; counterterrorism; the protection of members of the constitutional institutions, and of federal witnesses. Certain large scale cases also fall under its purview upon direction by the Federal Minister for Law and Justice.

Foreign relations[edit]

Tumbra is a peace-oriented country, with the country explicitly prohibited from declaring war unless acting "in defence of the interests of the State and its allies". It maintains diplomatic relations with most countries in Esportiva, Atlantean Oceania and Rushmore, and with other countries on a case-by-case basis. Tumbra is also a generous giver of foreign aid, being formulated by the Ministry of International Development, and is a keen helper of developing economies. While Tumbra is not a member of any international organisation, it always seeks out avenues for co-operation with other countries wherever possible.

Military[edit]

Tumbra's military, the Tumbran Armed Forces, is organised in three branches - the Army, Navy and the Air Force. In 2020, military spending was about $55 billion, or about 1.5% of GDP. Women may serve in any of the branches of the armed forces without any restriction. While the military is supposed to remain strictly neutral, only defending the interests of Tumbra, a 1988 ruling by the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the interests of Tumbra are broad enough to support peacekeeping ventures outside of the borders of Tumbra, as well as crisis reaction and prevention.

The TDF in total has about 255,000 active personnel, with about 117,000 civilians. In 2020, military spending was about 2% of the country's GDP.

Economy[edit]

Tumbra is a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a low level of corruption and a global centre of innovation. The service sector of Tumbra contributes approximately 62% of GDP, with manufacturing contributing about 30% and agriculture contributing the remaining 8%. The unemployment rate is approximately 2.2%, which is one of the lowest in the multiverse.

The Tumbran Stock Exchange, headquartered in Couno, is home to the 30 largest publicly-floated companies, including Mittels (an alchohol company), Rochester, MillsChem and Tumbra Telecom.

Transportation[edit]

Owing to its central location in Esportiva, Tumbra is a transportation hub for Esportiva. Much of its transport is carried out through rail, but a substantial road network exists across the country as well. The country's expressways - in particular the M1, which stretches from Harren in the north-east to Shepperton in the south-west, then continues into Damukuni - are some of the main arterial roads in Tumbra, and contribute heavily to goods flow in the country.

Road and automotive transport[edit]

Tumbra's motorway network - the Federal Expressway Network - was largely built in the 1950s by the federal government. Over the years, major works have made it such that all major cities are linked to at least one federal expressway. The busiest expressways are the abovementioned M1, which runs from Harren to Shepperton; other major expressways include the M2, which runs from Couno to Franport; and the M3, which runs from Lakewood in Severn, in the country's south-east, to Colbrook, in Grantfeldt.

Despite the large number of highways in Tumbra, the federal government has indicated that it will not be expanding the expressway network in the future, instead focusing on expanding the railway network and smaller roadways in Tumbra.

Rail transport[edit]

TumbraRail is the state-owned railway transportation company, and operates most commuter rail services in the country. It operates the Tumbran Intercity network on dedicated rails, with speeds reaching up to 300kmh (190mph). All major cities are linked by the Intercity network, and more minor cities are expected to be linked via future expansions to the network.

In major cities, most public transport networks are owned by the city but heavily subsidised by the federal government. Encouraging the use of public transportation was a key plank of the Haywood government's (1963-1979) plan for urban regeneration, and most major cities have metro systems, some of which are automated. The most recent metro system to open was the Southport Metro, in 2017. Certain cities also utilise light rail systems and trams in certain districts; all public transport is free at the point of use, again to encourage its use.

Air transport[edit]

Tumbra's two largest airlines are Tumbran Airlines and Republic Air, the former of which was privatised in 1983. Tumbran Airlines also operates regional flights under the name Tumbra Airlines Regional brand. Both Tumbran Airlines and Republic Air operate a large network of flights; the main difference is that Tumbran Airlines' hub airport is Couno International, while Republic Air is based out of Kingsbury International Airport. Both, however, share Straton-Straton International as a joint hub.

Couno International is Tumbra's biggest airport and is one of the busiest in the region; most international flights fly there. Apart from that, the abovementioned Straton-Serrapince International also serves long-haul flights; for destinations further west and south, other international airports include those in Kingsbury, Washington, Hesham-Lakewood, Nantwich, Millsburgh, Bencoolen and Fontwell.

Water transport[edit]

Tumbra has several ports which handle a large volume of frieght; the chief port for the north-eastern part of Tumbra is located in Harren, while those for the south-east, south coast and north coast are located in Hesham, Columbia, and Ridgewell respectively. The Port of Marray, an infrastructure project that is set to double the capacity of the Port of Harren, is due to open in 2025, and was chosen due to its location in the natural harbour in Tumbra Bay.

Cruise terminals mostly exist in all coastal cities; however, the main city for passenger cruise transport is Marray, contributing to its reputation as a tourist hub.

Tourism[edit]

Tumbra is one of the world's most visited countries, with Couno and Marray being amongst some of the most-visited cities in Tumbra. Tumbra's most famous landmarks include the Federal Parliament building, Serrapince Park, Napier Castle, Mount Vernon National Park, the Museum of Naval History in Southport, amongst others. Some cities - like Hesham, Marray and Serrapince - are renowned for their beaches and summer parties, as well as their nightlife. Many of the old castles and historical monuments, from the age of the Empire of Tumbra or earlier, are gazetted historical sites.

Demographics[edit]

Tumbra has a population of 114.6 million, making it one of the most populous countries in Esportiva as a whole. Its population density stands at 209 people per square kilometre (541 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Tumbra is 83.5 years (82 years for males and 85 years for females). However, the fertility rate per woman, at 1.65 children, is below the replacement rate of 2.1.

Tumbra has a number of large cities, with the largest of these being Couno, and the largest urban area being the Northeastern Conurbation.

Religion[edit]

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Religious affairs are overseen in Tumbra by the federal Ministry of Social Affairs.

Languages[edit]

Tumbran English is the official and most-spoken language in Tumbra. Most people in Tumbra are fluent in Tumbran English, and it is the only language offered by most government services and places of education. The most used immigrant languages are Yueyu and Kotzellachian, owing to the large immigrant communities in the country.

Education[edit]

While responsibility for education is mostly delegated to the states, the structure of the Tumbran education system is wholly standardised amongst them and regulated by the federal Ministry of Education - children enter the education system at age 7, though nursery and kindergarten education is open to all children aged 4 to 6. Primary education lasts for six years, after which they proceed for a four-year secondary education; at the end of this four-year secondary education, children are allowed to stop schooling. For a majority of teenagers, however, they have three options;

  • Enter a post-secondary, tertiary education course which lasts for three years, after which a national-level examination is administered; this examination greatly impacts which universities students are allowed to enter.
  • Enter a polytechnic, which offers a three-year course that awards the student with a diploma, which is equivalent to a community college degree elsewhere; most polytechnics offer courses related to information technology, communications and engineering, though other courses in nursing are also offered;
  • Enter a vocational school, which provides pre-employment training and apprenticeships; at the end of a three-year study course, a General Vocational Degree.

University education is open to those attending the tertiary education courses or polytechnics; however, acceptance is greatly skewed in favour of those going through the tertiary education system, which has led to accusations of elitism. University education in Tumbra is mostly free, and there is a long-held academic tradition in Tumbra; notable universities in Tumbra include the University of Couno, University of Serrapince, Lakewood Institute of Technology and the Gamaliel State University.

Health and Social Security[edit]

Healthcare System[edit]

The Tumbran Health Service, Tumbra's universal healthcare system, dates back to 1966, when it was introduced federally, though several Labour governments, including that of Colin Barduke in Severn and Ruth Attwell in Napier, had introduced rudimentary universal healthcare systems in their own states when they served as Premier. Barduke would later serve in then-Prime Minister Malcolm Haywood's government, and would be a major influence on his decision to roll out the THS federally. While controversial when first introduced, being subject to numerous lawsuits, the THS eventually proved to be a major boon in the country's handling of the smallpox outbreak that would spread across the country just a few months later, and today is a source of national pride for many Tumbrans. While a majority of Tumbrans are covered under the THS, people are also allowed to opt for private insurance. About 83% of Tumbra's healthcare is government-funded while 17% is privately funded; in 2020, the government spent about 15% of its budget on healthcare.

Tumbra's life expectancy is about 82 years for males and 85 years for females, and has a very low infant mortality rate, at about 3 per 1000 live births. The principle cause of death is heart disease.

Social welfare in Tumbra on the federal level is the shared domain of the Ministry of Health, which has primary responsibility over the National Endowment, and the Ministry of Labour, which has primary responsibility for the National Insurance. Further schemes, like state housing, are under the auspices of the state governments, and co-ordinated by the Ministry of Urban Development. States are also given the right to form their own social security schemes, and as of 2020 all twenty-five states have some form of childcare assistance and food stamp programs for the less well-off. Additionally, a minimum wage is present in Tumbra and has often been revised to account for inflation, with the current minimum wage being 10 dollars per hour.

National Endowment[edit]

The National Endowment is the primary state pension and social security scheme in Tumbra, and was inaugurated in 1947. Over the years, the responsibility for the National Endowment has changed ministries, but since 1984 it has been under the auspices of the Ministry of Health and Social Services, later shortened to the Ministry of Health. Plans have been made to move its responsibility to the Ministry of Labour; but as of 2020 no government has made such a plan.

The National Endowment provides retirement savings for all Tumbran citizens; payments are made both by the employer and the employee into a single, shared account out of their monthly paycheck; the current rate for both employers and employees is 10%. Employees are allowed to voluntarily contribute more to their account. This sum is supplemented by the state every year to hit a minimum recommended sum; those whose contributions go over this minimum recommended sum do not receive any extra money from the government. This sum is revised every seven years to account for inflation, and a further round of top-ups are done afterwards to account for this.

Once the employee hits the retirement age (currently 64), they receive a portion of the money in their account every month. The payments are ratioed such that people can start receiving their payments the month they turn 64 and continue until they reach the age of 79; thereafter all payouts are provided by the government. Every person is entitled to at least 750 dollars a month; should the money in their account run out before they reach 79, the government will continue to provide the 750 dollars per month. After the age of 79, everyone is paid 900 dollars a month. Those with more than the minimum sum in their account are able to choose how much extra they can withdraw per month; should there be any money left after they reach the age of 79, then the amount is paid on top of the 900 dollars that they receive per month.

Should the account-holder pass away prematurely, all the money in the account will be paid out to the account-holder's stated beneficiaries, with the money split equally between those nominated by the account-holder if there are multiple. Should the account-holder have no beneficiaries stated, the money will be paid out to the family members of the deceased equally. Should there be no surviving family members left, the money is returned to the State.

Participation in the National Endowment does not preclude people from partaking in other similar schemes, and many people do so to ensure a more comfortable retirement.

National Insurance[edit]

The National Insurance is the primary unemployment insurance scheme. Inaugurated in 1933 following the beginning of the Great Depression, the National Insurance provides unemployment benefits to those who have been unemployed for up to 24 months from the date of the end of their current employment. These payments are funded by the government through taxation.

The payments for the first 12 months begin at 80% of the last received income; it drops to 70% from the 13th through 16th month, 65% through the 18th month and 60% through the 24th month.

Further allowances are available, particularly for the disabled, amongst others.

Culture[edit]

Much of Tumbran culture was shaped by its history, as well as general trends in the world and Esportiva; both religious and secular, though secular thought greatly influenced culture after the deposition of the Empire in 1875. Tumbra is well known for its customs, especially in the West of the country; some go back to the days of the Western Tumbran kingdom. Public holidays in Tumbra are determined by state; though there are federal holidays as well, and 14 May each year is celebrated as Tumbran National Day, owing to its significance as the day the Treaty of Staplewood was signed, and the State of Hamilton officially ascended to statehood.

Music[edit]

Much of Tumbran classical music plays host to some of Esportiva's most well-known composers; Edmund Versant and Michael Whittingdon were influential composers in the Baroque era, while William Dawson and John Godwin were influential composers in the Classical era. The most famous female composer was Emily Thompson, who was a significant Romantic composer. In the 19th century, while the country was in upheaval, less musical talents emerged - but once the Civil War ended, a slight renaissance of Tumbran culture ensued, with multiple operas by composer Mike Handel becoming popular. His most famous work, The Circle, a four-part opera detailing the fall of the Leyan Empire, was released in 1896, and is still immensely popular today. Today, musical theatre is still extremely popular in Tumbra, with award-winning playwright and composer of musical theatre Vincent Smith-Burbank having dominated the Serrapince art scene since the early 1980s. To this day, the spiritual art capital of Tumbra is Serrapince.

In the 1950s, Tumbra became involved in the development of pop music, with bands like The Blazes, The Cosgroves and The Thundershocks driving this wave of pop music to the forefront of Tumbran culture. Tumbran music culture is most associated with the development of the rock genre, with several acts pioneering new rock, punk rock, glam rock, progressive rock and psychadelic rock. More recently, lo-fi has taken off as a popular genre in Tumbra, as well as EDM.

Art and Design[edit]

Tumbran art has been notable throughout history; the country's most famous painter is Helen Scott, an Impressionist painter; her most famous painting, Spring by Mount Vernon, is on permanent display at the Couno Museum of Art. Other famous painters include Charlie Mason and John Grimble, who were Baroque painters, and the Five Romantics, a group of five artists who were extremely prominent throughout the Romantic era; these were Robert Schumer, Thomas Blaydon, David Flanagan, Sarah Swanston and Anne-Marie Fox. The 20th century saw abstract artists Charles Fox - a distant family member of Anne-Marie - and Percival Coyard come to the fore, as well as sculptors Jon Crawley and Robert Tarrant.

Major art schools in Tumbra include the Serrapince Academy of Art; the Wabash College of Design, and the Bencoolen School of Fine Art, while the biggest art museums in the country include the Urban Museum of Modern Art in Serrapince, the abovementioned Couno Museum of Art, the National Gallery in Straton and the Lakewood Gallery of Art.

Tumbran architecture's golden age can largely be seen in older buildings, in particular the Presidential Palace in Straton and the Federal Parliament building, both of which were built in the Neo-classical style. Most of the buildings occupying Tumbran skylines, however, date from the 1960s and 70s, and are more modern in terms of their structure. The most famous skyscraper is the Hood Building in Harren, which was completed in 1929 and is a prime example of Art Deco work.

Literature and Philosophy[edit]

Tumbran literature has had a long, storied past; many fairy-tales told today originate in Tumbra, and many said fairy-tales and fables had a distinct moralist view towards society. This moralist view has long guided Tumbran philosophy, at least until the mid 19th century. Overall, though, Tumbran political philosophy is the most famous school of Tumbran philosophy, with the New School of Tumbran thought advocating for freedom of thought, amongst other such principles such as liberalism and independence, while keeping society together through social programmes. The most famous writer in Tumbra history is James Edwards, whose Manifesto for a New Society, published in 1860 influenced many Tumbran republican advocates, and indeed was a important document that influenced the founding of the Federal Republic.

Media[edit]

Mass media in Tumbra is one of the biggest industries in Tumbra, and primarily comes in the forms of television, radio, newspapers, magazines and websites. With a diverse range of providers, most notably the publicly-owned Tumbran Broadcasting Corporation (TBC). It mostly faces competitors on the free-to-air networks from other independent broadcasters. Cable television is also available and has several companies jostling for market influence. Radio tends to be more regionally focused, with the TBC holding an extremely large market share. Smaller radio stations, however, do exist.

Newspapers, too, tend to be more regionally focused, though broadsheets with national circulation do exist; the most prominent is The Couno Herald, which is also considered to be the newspaper of record. Media conglomerates tend to consolidate newspapers throughout the country to reach a national audience.

The Broadcasting Standards Authority regulates, amongst other things, the media landscape in Tumbra. Censorship is prohibited by the Constitution, guaranteeing a free press, but there has been a growing movement to add a sub-clause to clause 30 of the Constitution (which guarantees said free press) to prohibit false or misleading media, in lieu of the rise of fake news.

Television[edit]

The television industry can be separated into two parts; free-to-air and cable. There are eight free-to-air channels that broadcast nationwide; TBC One, TBC Two, TBC Three (stylised as "tbc 3"), Channel Four, Channel Five (both independent channels), the Special Broadcasting Service, the Independent Television Network (ITN) and TBC Parliament (which mostly covers the activities of the Federal Parliament.) By regulation, all free-to-air television must be neutral, but the BSA often receives complaints of perceived bias.

Most television networks are headquartered in Straton or Couno; the sole exception is Channel Five, which is headquartered in Serrapince. Regional television networks are often split into five regions; north (comprising Westmond, Finnley and Gamaliel), west (comprising Iswilyn, Hamilton, Thornton and Bencoolen), central (comprising Alexandria, Georgia and Raleigh), south (comprising Dartmoor, Severn and Clearmont) and east (Marcato, Napier, Bechor and Straton).

Regional television market share is mostly split between TBC and the ITN, with both broadcasters supplying programmes, especially local news, to the states. TBC separates its channels by the above five regions while the ITN has thirteen channels servicing the eighteen provinces.

Cable television is much less regulated, and by extension much more controversial. Several networks exist, the most prominent being aurora plc, with Aurora News holding a plurality of market share. The network, however, also offers movies, sports and other programming. Aurora News has come under fire for its supposedly right-leaning stance, but the BSA so far has found no broken rules.

Other significant news channels exist, the most prominent being the Tumbran News Network, or TNN; similarly to Aurora News, it has faced allegations of bias; the only difference is that it is often considered to be left-leaning, and the National Broadcasting Network (NBN), which is similarly leftward-leaning.

Newspapers[edit]

The newspaper industry is highly decentralised, but in general newspapers with national circulation are separated into two types; broadsheets and tabloids. Most newspapers are headquartered in the city of their namesake; Tumbra Today and the Independent are headquartered in Straton, while the Financial Times is headquartered in Serrapince.

Broadsheets include The Couno Herald, The New Napier Times, the Hesham Enquirer, the Serrapince Post, Tumbra Today, the Carter City Tribune and the Independent. The Financial Times focuses more on financial and economic affairs. Newspapers are generally allowed freer reign over their content and political leanings; while the Couno Herald does not officially endorse parties or candidates, the other big six generally do.

Smaller papers include The Guardian, The Spectator, The Denhelm Post, and the Delano Journal.

Left-leaning: The New Napier Times, the Serrapince Post, Tumbra Today. the Guardian, the Spectator Right-leaning: Hesham Enquirer, Carter City Tribune, The Spectator, Delano Journal, The Financial Times Centre-leaning: the Independent, The Denhelm Post

Tabloids can be distinguished by their smaller page size and red logos. Tabloids with national circulation include The Mirror and The Mail.

Radio[edit]

National and regional radio are dominated by the TBC; they run five major radio networks:

TBC Radio One, playing mostly current pop music output on FM and digital radio, with live music throughout the year; TBC Radio Two, which plays pop and rock, as well as hosting talk shows and special interest programmes; TBC Radio Three, which mostly transmits classical music; TBC Radio Four, which transmits current affairs programmes, talk shows and radio drama; TBC Radio Five, which serves as radio commentary on sports events.

Regional radio typically plays older music alongside news and is aimed at an older audience; it utilises the five-region system.

Telecommunications[edit]

Tumbra has one of the highest internet penetration rates in the world; at 99.2%, almost everybody has access to an internet-capable device. The major telecommunications providers in Tumbra are Tumbra Telecom (TMT), Jennings, Wrigham & Young (JWY), Horizon and CritikalCast. All five offer 5G services and residential service plans of speeds up to 5 Gbit/s.

Movies[edit]

Tumbran cinema, while historically underfunded, began taking off in the 1970s thanks to generous funding by the government; today the film industry is mainly centered in Millsburgh and Colbrook, in Grantfeldt. The Miraclem Studios, located in Colbrook, is home to one of the largest film production studios in the world. Some of the most critically acclaimed Tumbran directors include auteur Chris Cranston, who directed the neo-noir thriller Tumbran Chaos, and Mo Showley.

Cuisine[edit]

Tumbran cuisine differs from region to region, though most food staples uses either rice or wheat as its staple food. Bread is more often used in the western half of the country, where wheat is more often grown, and rice in the eastern half, where the conditions for growing rice are better. The country experienced a boom in food culture in the later half of the 19th century, with spices being imported from Xinhua, and curry can be considered a national dish of Tumbra.

Meat is also an integral part of Tumbran cuisine, with beef and chicken taking primacy over pork. All three, however, are popular. Mutton is also a popular meat in Tumbra, and dishes involving these are very popular throughout Tumbra.

The national alcoholic drink is a spirit called fogetin, which is usually brewed with rice wine. Tumbran alcohol consumption is about 40 litres per person per year. Other alcholic drinks popular in the country include wine, and beer.

Sport[edit]

Tumbra has a long sporting tradition, though the country only sent teams to international competitions only recently. Football is the most popular sport in Tumbra, with the Tumbra national football team participated in the qualifiers for the 87th World Cup, and the subsequent Cup of Harmony 79, taking place in the same international cycle. The team will be taking part in the upcoming Campionato Esportiva, and junior teams also take part in the Sporting World Cup and Di Bradini Cup, the tournament for U-18 and U-21 teams respectively. The Tumbran Football League also sends representatives to IFCF competitions, and the CEdC, the regional tournament for club sides.

In terms of sporting successes, the Under-18 side won the 13th edition of the Sporting World Cup, held in Zeta Reka and Hugeltaldom; the squad was notable for the fact that it included 9 female players.

Tumbra also organises a 18-round motorsports racing series, which came under the WGP3 umbrella in the 2020 season. Ted Pressley, who participates in WGP2, is the current Drivers Champion, while Rochester is the defending Constructors' Champion. Other sports are less regulated and considerably less popular, though gridiron is extremely popular in university circles - the University Gridiron Challenge is contested every year between 8 universities. Controversially, the Gamaliel State University gridiron team claimed to represent Tumbra at the recent World Bowl 41, though the extent of its legitimacy is challenged.

The Tumbran government has indicated an interest in sending athletes to the Olympic Games, both Winter and Summer.